Bo Wang (Jackie), National Distinguished Young Investigator.

Executive Dean of the Advanced Research Institute of Multidisciplinary Science and Member of the Academic Committee of Beijing Institute of Technology. Prof. of Chemistry and Material Science, Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology

E-mail: bowang@bit.edu.cn, wanglu525@126.com

Address: 427-2, Qiushi Building, No.5, Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing

 

1. Education Experience

2006-2008    University of California Los Angeles, Chemistry and Material Science, Ph.D.

2004-2006    University of Michigan, Material Chemistry, M.S.

2000-2004    Peking University, Material Chemistry, B.S.

 

2. Professional Experience

2011-Present      Beijing Institute of Technology (Beijing, China), Professor of Chemistry

2009-2011           PDI Technology (Culver City, CA), Director of Material Research

2008-2009           BASF SE/California NanoSystem Institute (CNSI), Senior Research Scientist and project leader, (Los Angeles, CA)

2003-2004          Procter & Gamble (Beijing, China), Research Associate and Market Analyst

 

3. Research Interests

     Novel functional porous materials design and synthesis, energy storage, advanced battery materials, hydrogen and methane storage, gas purification, toxicants capture and sensing.

 

4. Achievements

     Bo Wang has published ~30 papers on Nature, Science, JACS, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., PNAS, Chem. Sci, J. Mater. Chem. A, Chem. Commun., and Sci. Rep. with a total citaion of ~2000 times.

 

5. Awards

2008       Award to Student Study Abroad with Outstanding Achievements, Presented by Ministry of Education of People's Republic of China

2008       Ten Cutting-Edge Technology in Chemistry, Presented by The Royal Society of Chemistry

 

6. Publications

[1]   B. Wang, A. P. Côté, H. Furukawa, M. O’Keeffe and O. M. Yaghi* Colossal Cages in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks as Selective Carbon Dioxide Reservoirs, Nature, 2008, 453, 207–211.

 

[2]   L. Ma, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, S. Jiang, P. Li, Y. Hao, P. Shao, A.Yin, X. Feng* and B. Wang*, Ferrocene Linkage Facilitated Charge Separation in Conjugated Microporous Polymers, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, 10.1002/anie.201813598.

 

[3]   Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, Y. Dong, J. Li, S. Li, P. Shao, X. Feng* and B. Wang*, Fast Ion Transport Pathway Provided by Polyethylene Glycol Confined in Covalent Organic Frameworks, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2019, 141, 1923–1927.

 

[4]   S. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou*, S. Hong, Y. Dong, J. Wang, X. Gao, Y. Du, P. Qi, Y. Han and B. Wang*, Mono-Dispersed MnO Nanoparticles in Graphene-Interconnected N-Doped 3D Carbon Framework as Highly efficient Gas Cathode in Li-CO2 Batteries, Energy Environ. Sci., 2019, DOI: 10.1039/C8EE03283A.

 

[5]   Q. Wang, J. Han, Y. Zhang, Z. Yan, E. Velasco, Y. Yang, B. Wang*, S.-Q. Zang, Fabrication of Copper Azide Film through Metal-Organic Framework for Micro-Initiator Applications, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 10.1021/acsami.8b21754.

 

[6]   X. Li, B. Wang*, Y. Cao, S. Zhao, H. Wang, X. Feng, J. Zhou, X. Ma, Water Contaminants Elimination Based on Metal‒Organic Frameworks and Perspective on Their Industrial Applications, 2019, ACS Sustain. Chem Eng., 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05751.

 

[7]   P. Li, B. Wang*, Recent Development and Application of Conductive MOFs. Isr. J. Chem., 2019, in press, 10.1002/ijch.201800078. (Dedicated to Prof. Omar Yaghi on the occasion of his receipt of the Wolf Prize in 2018).

 

[8]   B. Lü, Y. Chen, P. Li, B. Wang, K. Muellen*, and M. Yin*, Stable Radical Anions Generated from a Porous Perylenediimide Metal-Organic Framework for Boosting Near-Infrared Photothermal Conversion, Nature Commun., 2019, 10, 767-774.

 

[9]   P. Shao, J. Li, F. Chen, L. Ma, Q. Li, M. Zhang, J. Zhou, A. Yin, X. Feng* and B. Wang*, Flexible Films of Covalent Organic Framework with Ultralow Dielectric Constants under High Humidity, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2018, 57, 16501–16505.

 

[10] H. Wang, P. Rassu, X. Wang, H. Li, X. Wang, X. Wang, X. Feng, A. Yin, P. Li, X. Jin, S.-L. Chen*, X. Ma* and B. Wang*, Iron Metal-Organic Framework as Highly Efficient Catalyst for Ozone Decomposition, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2018, 57, 16416–16420.

 

[11] S. Li, Y. Dong, J. Zhou*, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Gao, Y. Han, P. Qi and B. Wang*, Carbon Dioxide in the Cage: Manganese Metal-Organic Frameworks for High Performance CO2 Electrodes in Li-CO2 Batteries, Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, 11, 13181325.

 

[12] Y. Chen, F. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. Cai, S. Cao, S. Li, W. Zhao, Sh. Yuan, X. Feng, A. Cao, X. Ma* and B. Wang* Facile Fabrication of Multifunctional Metal-Organic Framework Hollow Tubes to Trap Pollutants, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 16482–16485.

 

[13] Y. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Cao, S. Li, F. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Zhou, X. Feng, X. Ma and B. Wang* Roll-to-Roll Production of Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for Particulate Matter Removal, Adv. Mater., 2017, 29, 1606221.  Reported by Nature, Research Highlights.

 

[14] S. Wang, Q. Wang, P. Shao, Y. Han, X. Gao, L. Ma, S. Yuan, X. Ma, J. Zhou, X. Feng* and B. Wang* Exfoliation of Covalent Organic Frameworks into Few-Layer Redox-Active Nanosheets as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 4258−4261.

 

[15] T. Kitao, Y. Zhang, S. Kitagawa, B. Wang* and T. Uemura* Hybridization of MOFs and Polymers, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2017,46, 3108-3133.

 

[16] J. Zhou, B. Wang* Emerging Crystalline Porous Materials as a Multifunctional Platform for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2017, 46, 6927 – 6945.

 

[17] S. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Feng,* B. Wang* and L. Yang, Explosives in the Cage: Metal-Organic Framework for Energetic Materials Sensing and Desensitization, Adv. Mater., 2017, 29, 1701898.

 

[18] Y. Zhang, J. Duan, D. Ma, P. Li, S. Li, H. Li, J. Zhou, X. Ma, X. Feng*, B. Wang Three-Dimensional Anionic Cyclodextrin-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2017, 56, 16313 –16317.

 

[19] Y. Chen, X. Huang, S. Zhang, S. Li, S. Cao, X. Pei, J. Zhou, X. Feng and B. Wang* Shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks: from Fluid to Shaped Bodies and Robust Foams, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 10810–10813.

 

[20] N. Ding, H. Li, X. Feng,* Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Ma, J. Zhou and B. Wang* Partitioning MOF‐5 into Confined and Hydrophobic Compartments for Carbon Capture under Humid Conditions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 10100−10103.

 

[21] Y. Zhang, S.Yuan, X. Feng, H. Li, J. Zhou and B. Wang* Preparation of Nanofibrous Metal-Organic Framework Filters for Efficient Air Pollution Control, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 5785–5788. (Highlighted by Emerging Applications of Metal-Organic Frameworks & Covalent Organic Frameworks, ACS Virtue Issue).

 

[22] Y. Chen, S. Li, X. Pei, J. Zhou, X. Feng, S. Zhang, Y. Cheng, H. Li, R. Han and B. Wang* A Solvent-Free Hot-Pressing Method for Preparing Metal-Organic Framework Coatings, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2016, 55, 3419 –3423.

 

[23] Q. Wang, X. Feng, S. Wang, N. Song, Y. Chen, W. Tong, Y. Han, L. Yang* and B. Wang* Metal-Organic Framework Templated Synthesis of Copper Azide as the Primary Explosive with Low Electrostatic Sensitivity and Excellent Initiation Ability, Adv. Mater., 2016, 28, 5837–5843.

 

[24] Y. Zhang, X. Feng,* H. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhao, S. Wang, L. Wang and B. Wang* Photoinduced Postsynthetic Polymerization of a Metal–Organic Framework toward a Flexible Stand-Alone Membrane, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 4259 –4263. (‘hot paper’ and ‘cover story’; Reported by Nature Material, Research Highlights).

 

[25] L. Wang, X. Feng, L. Ren, Q. Piao, J. Zhong, Y. Wang and B. Wang* Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor Based on a Metal−Organic Framework Interwoven by Electrochemically-Deposited PANI, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 4920−4923.

 

[26] Y. Guo, X. Feng,* T. Han, S. Wang, Z. Lin, Y. Dong and B. Wang* Tuning the Luminescence of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Detection of Energetic Heterocyclic Compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15485–15488. (Highlighted by ACS ‘Noteworthy Chemistry’)

 

[27] L. Tan, H. Li, Y. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Wang, R. Pan, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, B. Wang* and Y. Yang* Stimuli-Responsive Metal-Organic Frameworks Gated by Pillar[5]arene Supramolecular Switches, Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 1640–1644. (Cover Story)

 

[28] Y. Guo, S. Gu, X. Feng,* J. Wang, H. Li, T. Han, Y. Dong, T. D. James, X. Jiang and B. Wang* 3D Cross-Correlative Matrix Temperature Detection and Non-Invasive Thermal Mapping based on a Molecular Probe, Chem. Sci., 2014, 5, 4388–4393.

 

[29] L. Tan, H. Li, Y. Tao, S. Zhang,* B. Wang* and Y. Yang* Pillar[5]arene-Based Supramolecular Organic Frameworks for Highly Selective CO2-Capture at Ambient Conditions, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 7027–7031.

 

[30] J. Zhou, R. Li, X. Fan, Y. Chen, R. Han, W. Li, J. Zheng, B. Wang* and X. Li* Rational Design of a Metal-Organic Framework Host for Sulfur Storage in Fast, Long-Cycle Li-S Batteries, Energ. Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 2715–2724.

 

[31] L. Wang, Y. Han, X. Feng, J. Zhou, P. Qi and B. Wang*
 Metal–organic Frameworks for Energy Storage: Batteries and Supercapacitors, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2016,307,361–381. (Review IF=12.2)

 

[32] L. Wang, L. Ren, X. Wang, X. Feng, J. Zhou, and B. Wang* Multivariate MOF-Templated Pomegranate-Like Ni/C as Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution and Urea Oxidation, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10, 4750-4756.

 

[33] Y. Chen, S. Zhang, F. Chen, S. Cao, Y. Cai, S. Li, H. Ma, X. Ma, P. Li*, X. Huang* and B. Wang* Defect Engineering of Highly Stable Lanthanide Metal–Organic Frameworks by Particle Modulation for Coating Catalysis, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018,6, 342-348.

 

[34] H. Li, X. Feng,* D. Ma, M. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and B. Wang* Stable Aluminum Metal−Organic Frameworks (Al-MOFs) for Balanced CO2 and Water Selectivity, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10, 3160−3163.

 

[35] Y. Han, J. Li, T. Zhang, P. Qi, S. Li, X. Gao, J. Zhou, X. Feng, and B. Wang* Zinc/Nickel-Doped Hollow Core–Shell Co3O4 Derived from a Metal–Organic Framework with High Capacity, Stability, and Rate Performance in Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries, Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 1651 – 1656.

 

[36] Y. Han, D. Yu, J. Zhou,* P. Xu, P. Qi, Q. Wang, S. Li, X. Fu, X. Gao, C. Jiang, X. Feng, and B. Wang*A Lithium Ion Highway by Surface Coordination Polymerization: In Situ Growth of Metal–Organic Framework Thin Layers on Metal Oxides for Exceptional Rate and Cycling Performance, Chem. Eur. J., 2017, 23, 11513 – 11518.

 

[37] S. Li, X. Fu, J. Zhou,* Y. Han, P. Qi, X. Gao, X. Feng and B. Wang* An Effective Approach to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 Cathode by an MOF-Derived Coating, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 4823-4827.

 

[38] J. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhou,* P. Qi, S. Li, K. Zhang, X. Feng, B. Wang* and C. Hu* A Copper(II)-Based MOF film for Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Production, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 7174–7177.

 

[39] L. Wang, Y. Wu, R. Cao, L. Ren, M. Chen, X. Feng, J. Zhou and B. Wang* Fe/Ni Metal−Organic Frameworks and Their Binder-Free Thin Films for Efficient Oxygen Evolution with Low Overpotential, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, 8, 16736−16743.

 

[40] Y. Zhang, X. Feng, S. Yuan, J. Zhou and B. Wang* Challenges and Recent Advances in MOF–Polymer Composite Membranes for Gas Separation, Inorg. Chem. Front., 2016, 3, 896–909.

 

[41] X. Fu, D. Yu, J. Zhou,* S. Li, X. Gao, Y. Han, P. Qi, X. Feng and B. Wang* Inorganic and Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries, CrystEngComm, 2016, 18, 4236-4258.

 

[42] X. Pei, Y. Chen, S. Li, S. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Zhou and B. Wang* Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Porous Carbons: Syntheses, Porosity and Gas Sorption Properties, Chin. J. Chem., 2016, 34, 157–174.

 

[43] S. Li, Y. Chen, X. Pei, S. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Zhou and B. Wang* Water Purification: Adsorption over Metal-Organic Frameworks, Chin. J. Chem., 2016, 35, 175-185.

 

[44] P. Qi, Y. Han, J. Zhou, X. Fu, S. Li, J. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Fan, X. Feng and B. Wang* MOF Derived Composites for Cathode Protection: Coatings of LiCoO2 from UiO-66 and MIL-53 as Ultra-Stable Cathodes, Chem. Commun., 2015, 51, 12391-12394.

 

[45] Y. Chen, X. Feng, X. Huang, Z. Lin, X. Pei, S. Li, J. Li, S. Wang, R. Li and B. Wang* A Tale of Copper Coordination Frameworks: Controlled Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations and Their Catalytic C-H Bond Activation Properties, Chem. Eur. J., 2015, 21, 13894–13899.

 

[46] Y. Han, P. Qi, X. Feng, S. Li, X. Fu, H. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhou, 
X. Li and B. Wang* In Situ Growth of MOFs on the Surface of Si Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Lithium Storage: Si@MOF Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2015, 7, 2178–2182.

 

[47] Y. Han, P. Qi, J. Zhou, X. Feng, S. Li, X. Fu, J. Zhao, D. Yu, and B. Wang* Metal−Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2015, 7, 26608−26613.

 

[48] J. Zhou, X. Yu, X. Fan, X. Wang, H. Li, Y. Zhang, W. Li, J. Zheng, B. Wang* and X. Li* The Impact of the Particle Size of a Metal–Organic Framework for Sulfur Storage in Li–S Batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3, 8272–8275.

 

[49] J. Zhao, H. Li, Y. Han, R. Li, X. Ding, X. Feng* and Bo Wang* Chirality From Substitution: Enantiomer Separation via a Modified Metal-Organic Framework, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3, 12145 – 12148.

 

[50] L. Tan, H. Li, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Feng, B. Wang, Y. Yang*  Zn2+-Triggered Drug Release from Biocompatible Zirconium MOFs Equipped with Supramolecular Gates,  Small, 2015, 11, 3807–3813.

 

[51] B. Chen, Z. Lin, B. Wang,* X. Feng, L. Fan, S. Yang, X. Huang and C. Hu*  A New Synthetic Approach to Functionalize Oxomolybdenum Complexes, CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 7410–7413.

 

[52] Y. Han, P. Qi, S. Li, X. Feng, J. Zhou, H. Li, S. Su, X. Li, and B. Wang* A Novel Anode Material Derived from Organic-Coated ZIF-8 Nanocomposites with High Performance in Lithium Ion Battery, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 8057–8060.

 

[53] X. Huang, Y. Chen, Z. Lin, X. Ren, Y. Song, Z. Xu, X. Dong, X. Li, C. Hu* and B. Wang* Zn-BTC MOFs with Active Metal Sites Synthesized via a Structural-Directing Approach for Highly Efficient Carbon Conversion, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 2624 –2627.

 

[54] R. Li, X. Ren, X. Feng, X. Li, C. Hu* and B. Wang* A Highly Stable Metal- and Nitrogen-Doped Nanocomposite Derived from Zn/Ni-ZIF-8 capable of CO2 Capture and Separation, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 6894–6897.

 

[55] Y. Chen, X. Huang, X. Feng, J. Li, Y. Huang, J. Zhao, Y. Guo, X. Dong, R. Han, P. Qi, Y. Han, H. Li, C. Hu* and B. Wang* Facile Fabrication of Magnetically Recyclable Metal-Organic Framework Nanocomposites for Highly Efficient and Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Benzylic C-H Bonds, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 8374–8377.

 

[56] X. Huang, X. Zhang, D. Zhang, S. Yang, X. Feng,  J. Li,  Z. Lin, J Cao, R. Pan, Y. Chi,* B. Wang* and C. Hu* Binary Pd-Polyoxometalates and Isolation of a Ternary Pd-V-Polyoxomolybdates Active Species for Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols, Chem. Eur. J., 2014, 20, 2557–2564.

 

[57] R. Li, X. Ren, H. Ma, X. Feng, Z. Lin, X. Li, C. Hu* and B. Wang* Nickel-Substituted Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Time-Resolved Alcohol Sensing and Photo Catalysis under Visible Light, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014, 16, 5724–5729.

 

[58] H. Li, X. Feng,* Y. Guo, D. Chen, R. Li, X. Ren, X. Jiang, Y. Dong and B. Wang* A Malonitrile-Functionalized Metal-Organic Framework for Hydrogen Sulfide Detection and Selective Amino Acid Molecular Recognition, Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4366–4370.

 

[59] R. Li, X. Ren, J. Zhao, X. Feng, X. Jiang, X.  Fan, Z.  Lin, X.  Li, C. Hu* and B. Wang* Polyoxometallates Trapped in a Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Leading to High Uptake and Selectivity of Bioactive Molecules, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014, 2, 2168–2173.

 

[60] Y. Song, X. Yin, B. Tu, Q. Pang, H. Li, X. Ren, B. Wang* and Q. Li* Metal-Organic Frameworks Constructed from Mixed Infinite Inorganic Units and Adenine, CrystEngComm, 2014, 16, 3082–3085.

 

[61] X. Fan, W. Wang, W. Li, J. Zhou, B. Wang, J. Zheng,* X. Li Highly Porous ZIF-8 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Surfactant Mediated Method in Aqueous Solution with Enhanced Adsorption Kinetics, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6, 14994–14999.

 

[62] Z. Lin, B. Chen, X. Feng, B. Wang,* Y. Chi, Y. Fan, X. Yang, X. Huang and C. Hu* Two Chiral Multinuclear Palladium(II) Complexes Comprising Alternately Arranged Isomerous Hexanuclear Clusters, CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 6461–6464.

 

[63] B. Chen, X. Huang, B. Wang,* Z. Lin, J. Hu, Y. Chi and C. Hu* Three New Imidazole-Functionalized Hexanuclear Oxidovanadium Clusters with Exceptional Catalytic Oxidation Properties for Alcohols, Chem. Eur. J., 2013, 19, 4408–4413.

 

[64] Z. Lin, B. Wang,* J. Cao, B. Chen, Y. Gao, Y. Chi, C. Xu, X. Huang, R. Han, S. Su and C. Hu* Cation-Induced Synthesis of New Polyoxopalladates, Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 4435−4437.

 

[65] F. Chen, X. Li, B. Wang, T. Xu, S. Chen,* P. Liu* and C. Hu* Mechanism of the Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides Catalyzed by Co-substituted 12-Tungstenphosphate, Chem. Eur. J., 2012, 18, 9870–9876.

 

[66] B. Chen, B. Wang,* Z. Lin, L. Fan, Y. Gao, Y. Chi and C. Hu* Controlled Solvothermal Synthesis of Novel Organic Functionalized Polyoxovanadates, Dalton Trans., 2012, 41, 6910–6913.

 

[67] X. Ren, R. Li, Y. Song, X. Feng and B. Wang* A Mild-Condition Synthetic Pathway to Prepare POMs and MOF Composites and Performance of the Composites for Adsorb Metal Ions, 中国科学:化学, 2014, 44, 1521–1527.

 

[68] R. Banerjee, A. Phan, B. Wang, C. Knobler, H. Furukawa, M. O’Keeffe and O. M. Yaghi* High-Throughput Synthesis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks and Application to CO2 Capture, Science, 2008, 319, 939–943.

 

[69] H. Deng, C. J. Doonan, H. Furukawa, R. B. Ferreira, J. Towne, C. B. Knobler, B. Wang and O. M. Yaghi* Multiple Functional Groups of Varying Ratios in Metal-Organic Frameworks, Science, 2010, 327, 846–850.

 

[70] Z. Lu, C. B. Knobler, H. Furukawa, B. Wang, G. Liu and O. M. Yaghi* Synthesis and Structure of Chemically Stable Metal-Organic Polyhedra, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 12532–12533.

 

[71] D. Britt, H. Furukawa, B. Wang, G. Glover and O. M. Yaghi* Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal sites, PNAS, 2009, 20637–20640.